As a rule of thumb, most unusual feedstuffs can be effectively incorporated into livestock rations to a maximum of about 30 per cent of the total ration without significant influence on animal health.
Most by-products and unusual feedstuffs should be used with caution and introduced into rations gradually, even when low prices favour their use. Factors to consider about unusual feedstuffs are: their nutritive value, palatability, possible toxicity or contamination with pesticides or heavy metals
and the effects upon digestion and utilisation of the total ration. The use of by-product stockfeed needs to be declared when completing National Vendor Declaration forms.
There are a number of different by-products used for stockfeed such as:
- By-product energy concentrates including brewers grain, apple and tomato pomace, grain screenings, onions and bakery waste.
- By-product protein concentrates including coconut meal, corn gluten meal, cottonseed meal, linseed meal, safflower meal and whey.
- By-product roughage including rice, hay and seaweed.
Poor quality by-products include grape pomace or marc, rice hulls, sawdust, urea-treated straw and waste paper.