Useful Tables – Beef

Energy and protein contents of common feeds for cattle

(Note: The metabolisable energy of some grains are less for cattle than for sheep unless they are rolled or milled) (Source: Drought Feeding and Management of Cattle Table 5.2 page 32)

IMPORTANT – Note the difference in approximate dry matter (DM) % (ME) Metabolisable energy (MJ/kg DM) Approximate dry matter (DM) % Energy MJ ME/kg DM Crude protein % dry matter
When fed whole to cattle When fed rolled or coarsely milled to cattle
Average Average Range Average Range
Wheat 90 9 13 12-15 12 8-23
Barley 90 8.4 13 11-13 11 6-17
Triticale 90 10.4 13 12-15 12 9-15
Oats 90 10 11 9-13 9 6-12
Lupins 90 11 13 12-1 30 26-40
Peas 90 11 13 10-13 23 18-29
Maize 90 13 13.5 12-14 9 8-13
Safflower seeds 90   13 7-12 25 20-37
Rice (dehulled) 90   12 11-14 7 7-9
Rye 90   14   11  
Sorghum 90 10 13   11  
Pellets 90 N/A 12 10-14 12 11-16

WARNING: As can be seen from the table, foods vary considerably in nutritional value depending on growing conditions, stage of harvesting and storage conditions. The only way to be sure of the nutritional value of a particular batch of food is to have it tested for energy, protein, fibre and dry matter


Energy and protein requirements of pregnant and dry cows

(Source: Drought Feeding and Management of Beef Cattle Table 6.2 page 38)

Table 6.2: Cows dry. pregnant mature.*

Liveweight (kg) Growth rate (kg/day) Maximum daily dry matter (DM) intake Metabolisable energy (ME) requirement (MJ ME/day) Minimum ME concentration of diet (MJ ME/kgDM) Crude protein % of dietary dry matter
% of liveweight (kg)
350 0 2.4 8.5 49-85 5.7-10 6
400 0 2.3 9.4 54-90 5.7-9.6 6
450 0 2.2 10.1 59-95 5.8-9.4 6
500 0 2.1 10.7 64-100 5.9-93 6
550 0 2.0 112 69-105 6.2-9.4 6

*Range of values for cows that are 6 months pregnant to point of calving, assuming a 40 kg calf birthweight When determining the energy requirement for your cows, if the cows are 6 months pregnant use the lower figure in the column for MJ ME/kgDM
If cows are at the point of calving, use the upper range for energy requirements


Energy and protein requirements of cows with calves

(Source: Drought Feeding and Management of Beef Cattle Table 6.3 page 38)

Table 6.3: Cows with suckling calves 1-4 months old, assuming eventual calf weaning weight of 250 kg.

Liveweight (kg) Growth rate (kg/day) Maximum daily dry matter (DM) intake Metabolisable energy (ME) requirement (MJ ME/day) Minimum ME concentration of diet (MJ ME/kgDM) Crude protein % of dietary dry matter
% of liveweight (kg)
350* 0 2.4 8.5 90-117 10.6 10
0.5 114-141 13.4 11
400* 0 2.3 9.4 95-122 10.1 10
0.5 122-149 12.9 11
450 0 2.2 10.1 100-127 9.9 10
500 0 2.1 10.7 105-132 9.8 10
550 0 2 11.2 110-137 9.8 10

*Young cows at these weights need to put on some weight after calving (for example O.5kg/day) because they have not yet reached their adult weight and therefore need better feed than older cows. Note: when determining the cow/calf unit energy requirements, use the lower figure in the energy column if the calf is 1 month old. Use the higher figure in the energy column if the calf is 4 months old.


Energy tables for beef cattle (Appendix 11)

Appendix II – Energy tables and calculations

Calculation for maintenance:
Maintenance MJ ME (0.1 x liveweight) + 5

Calculations for daily onorgy requirements of growing cattle:
<300 kg LW 0.5 kg/day MJ ME = 1.7 x maintenance
1.0 kg/day MJ ME 2.2 x maintenance
1.5 kg/day MJ ME 2.7 x maintenance
300-500 kg LW 0.5 kg/day MJ ME = 1.6 x maintenance
1.0 kg/day MJ ME = 2.1 x maintenance
1.5 kg/day MJ ME = 2.6 x maintenance
500+ kg LW 0.5 kg/day MJ ME = 1.5 x maintenance
1.0 kg/day MJ ME = 2.0 x maintenance
1.5 kg/day MJ ME = 2.5 x maintenance

 

Lookup tables for daily energy requirements of pregnant and lactating cattle:
Requirements for pregnancy – add to maintenance of cow
Expected calf birth weight (kg) Weeks before calving
-12 -8 -4 0
MJ ME/cow/day
30 6 11 20 34
40 9 15 26 45
50 11 18 32 55

 

Requirements for lactation – add to maintenance of cow
Normal calf weaning weight (kg) Months after calving
+1 +3 +5 +7
MJ ME/cow/day
150 35 45 55 55
200 40 55 65 75
250 50 70 85 95
300 60 80 100 115

Weight of hay bales

(wet weights/as fed weights):Source: http://dairypastureconsumptioncalculator.com.au/help/typical-bale-weight

Hay

Bale Shape Bale size Weight (as fed, t) Dry Matter (%) Dry weight (t DM)
Round 4×4 0.25 85 0.21
Round 5×4 0.55 85 0.30
Round 5×6 0.50 85 0.43
Square 8x3x3 0.30 85 0.26
Square 8x4x5 0.60 85 0.51
Square 8x4x4 0.75 85 0.64
 Small Squares  0.025 85 0.02

Silage

Bale shape Bale size Weight (as fed, t) Dry Matter (%) Dry weight (t DM)
Round 4×4 0.60 40 0.24
Round 5×4 0.75 40 0.30
1 cubic metre (wilted) 0.58 30 0.17
1 cubic metre (direct cut) 0.83 18 0.15
1 cubic metre maize silage 0.5 35 0.18

Source: Pasture consumption calculator (V1)